Archaisms as they are
An archaism is the term coming from the Ancient Greek language and meaning something old, coming from the past. We call so things, events and words that are no longer used frequently in our everyday routine. For example, we do not have any more typewriters in the offices, nor we develop the film after shooting the photos on our cameras, and we certainly do not call our outside entertainments “gallivanting”. The competent English editor, though, knows perfectly the correct meaning of these words and notions and their proper usage. Approach the professionals!
In the current post, we shall speak about the archaisms in language. If you are interested in the archaisms – the real objects that have fallen out of usage, – check the relevant information on the Web. Certainly, sometimes the language goes askew with the physical reality (for example, in English almost any insect can be named bug, while in Chinese each insect has its name and they are usually not allied in the speech; in Russian the fingers and toes have the same name of palets). However, with the archaisms the thing or process that disappears usually takes the name along. For instance, the word chatelaine meant the belt chain with the set of household tools like scissors, sewing kits, keys and so on. Since the beginning of XXth century, these useful things started to be used rarely and eventually disappeared. So did the word.
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Thus, the archaisms can be classified by the factor of usage and the representation in the modern spoken language. On this basis, they can be divided into two large groups:
There is a never-ending discussion among linguists and regular people, whether the archaisms represent the necessary element of language, or they are a touch of old-fashioned style that does not perform any feasible function. First group points out the exquisite beauty of most of the old or antique words. Indeed, it seems that our language tends to economy more and more. We often use the short words preferring them to the long ones (we’d rather say I was baffled by this story than I was bewildered by this narrative), and make abbreviations even out of the relatively short words (prof. instead of professor, CUL instead of see you later). With this background, the use of some elegant archaism, like praxinoscope (a beautiful installation from XIXth century where the cardboard figures moved around, supported by the light and music), accentuates the speech and attracts attention, bringing a peculiar flavor to it. Others stress that the language is the live system that reflects the mind and reality, and thus cannot stay the same for decades. It is necessarily regenerating and purifying itself of the remnants, not usable anymore. Indeed, one can live throughout the whole life, without knowing what the dress-lifter is, and never suffer from that obliviousness. Yet investigating this matter may give a clue to the mode of living in the past, the principles of fashion, social stratification, traditions, culture in general. By the way, the dress-lifter used to be the ladies’ device shaped in a form of the tongs with the rounded catchers, which was assembled with the small pulley mechanism, applied to lift the skirt of the dress while walking in the street.
Another classification of the archaisms can be built on a basis of the part of their use in the modern world. In this regard they can be distributed into two groups:
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Some researchers also propose the different temporal classification. It is grounded on the temporal terms of the word’s appearance. According to it, archaisms are to be separated onto:
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From the above mentioned we can see that the term “archaism” implies more than just an “old word”. The words from the past can be classified in different ways depending on their pragmatic function, period of usage, preservation of the initial meaning. However, these are rather gross differentiation systems not allowing to answer the questions put in the subject of the post. The main one of them is “Whether to use archaisms or not? Whether they are useful?” In order to reply we shall have to discover more subtle edges of differentiation and look into the linguistic nature of the issue. Let’s do it in the next clause.
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Linguistic classification of archaisms. Pragmatic aspect
As we outlined above, an archaism is the element of language that has fallen out of usage, or reduced its scope of use considerably, something associated with the past and not belonging to the modern world. However, not all the words vanish in the same way. Similarly to the physical objects, the words can be thrown away if they are not in use anymore (like Gardyloo – the modified French phrase meaning “beware of the water”; used to be implemented when pouring the chamber pots out of the window in the Middle Ages and later). They can be stored somewhere in the attic of the mind, where from they can be derived, examined with surprise and nostalgia, and put away again (like amongst – the older version of “among”). In some cases, they can be put on a more prestigious place. It’s like an antique vase in the hall, installed to surprise visitors and please the owners. Such words as acceptation (benevolent acceptance of something or someone), muchly (substitute for “much”) and illecebrous (something alluring, teasing the mind) do bring the specific old-fashioned flavor to the speech; however, for the purpose of the mutual understanding during everyday communication they are rather useless. Just as the vase.
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However, the tendency to use archaisms is still present in the modern communication. People use them for different purposes. Sometimes they are willing to show their substantial education and profound knowledge of the fine literature. Sometimes they tend to create a kind of slang intended for the narrow group only. They can also serve for expression of some peculiar tint of the meaning, not available in the modern word (for example, saying I love thee bring more seriousness and solemnity to your words, than saying “I love you”). Check the functions of neologisms as elements opposite to archaisms, and compare them. If you need a thorough research on the issue, our proficient MBA essay editing service is available full-time.
Then, let us reveal the reasons for this part of vocabulary still being present in the language and used for communication. For that, we shall need to explore the notion and specify its particular features.
Let us start with the pragmatic distinction that refers to the area of usage of the archaisms. In this regard, the archaic words can be distributed into:
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We can also classify the archaisms basis the sphere of life they refer to. This thematic classification is an important one, as it clearly outlines the area of use of the archaic words. It thus characterizes the spheres as well as being favorable for archaisms or staying repellent to them. In the present article, we shall describe only the former kind of spheres, and just mention some of the latter ones, as they are much more numerous. The spheres not benevolent to archaisms are IT area, urban slang, English studies for non-native speakers and so on. Many of them are outlined within the assortment of the interesting posts we offer you to peruse. But let us return to the spheres where the archaisms have their firm place and slide away quite slowly and reluctantly. Believe, these areas can be also described as the most conservative ones. However, let us see and judge for ourselves:
1. Law. The legal system of the modern European and US countries has its origins in the Roman system of the Law. That is why it is quite expected that the language practice for this area is filled with the archaisms. Most of them have the Latin origin (a priori (from the beginning), corpus juris (body of the Law), per factum (per fact, actually)) and are used at the court proceedings, in bureaucracy, contracts’ conclusion etc. There is, however, another layer of the archaisms in the Law that originate from the later period (witnesseth (“he / she witnesses”), hereof (“out of this”), lessee (“renter, tenant”)). Thus, these words can be classified as old-fashioned ones, according to one of the classifications we listed in the previous clause. Among them are many word-combinations, too. For the most part, they consist of the words still applicable in the modern discourse, yet the order in which they are put indicates their archaic origin. These are phrases like be it enacted, wherefore premises considered, null and void, know all men by these presents, shall have effect and so on. As for these phrases, it is rather the ritual than the actual need that currently prescribes their usage. Some of the lawyers and linguists propose to reduce their usage or even remove them completely from the legal discourse. Instead they offer using the relevant phrases of the modern English language. They support their proposal by considerations of globalization and openness of the legal proceedings and documents to the people, instead of being a restricted territory fit for the lawyers only. However, such appeals do not attract the majority of supporters yet.
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2. Medicine. Here we have the similar situation. The roots of the Western medicine originate from the tradition of the science and practice of the Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome. Though the tradition in whole, methods and practice had been developed throughout the centuries, this development was always supported by means of the Latin language and Greek and Latin terms. The Middle Ages’ scientists and practitioners like Leonardo Da Vinci, Richard Lower, Roger Bacon and others also used them profusely for their activities. Since this way was quite handy for preserving and transmitting the knowledge, Latin stayed the prevailing means of communication in medicine up to XVIIIth century, in some countries even during later periods. Today, though medical people do not talk Latin anymore, they still use a mass of words and word-combinations in Latin and Ancient Greek that indicate the specific terms. Cerebrum (skull, brain), gastroscopy (exploration of the stomach), Matricaria (chamomile) are used in the scientific works, at the dedicated forums, in the doctors’ prescriptions etc. The frequency of their usage would allow to remove the label “archaic” from the relevant terms, would not their use be limited by the medicine area. If you need to know more about medical texts and the way of their editing, welcome to the “Services” subdivision of our blog! It is dedicated to numerous issues and questions in editing and reflects the problems of writing the academic papers on different subjects.
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3. Religion. Religion is quite past-oriented by its nature. The ancient period of the initial establishment of any religion serves as a basis for the specific language forms. However, the purpose of their usage is different. The religious archaic words are meant to inspire the sacred awe and worship. They are not meant to provide deeper understanding, to deal with the sense’ transmission, but rather to affect emotions. The archaic forms, for many instances complicated and hardly penetrable, are used in order to increase the importance and mystification of the religious texts and rituals. Though such situation is characteristic for any of the major religions, we shall provide the examples for the Christian religion, out of the Bible, as this sacred book was last edited (translated into English) in the period of King James reigning, and is a perfect example of the archaic English language. If you are interested in the older editions of the Bible, check the list on the Internet. Seer (a prophet), shambles (antique market place), gainsay (contradicting, saying something against) are but a few examples out of the mass of the archaic words and phrases that can be found in Bible. Many of the Bible editions today represent the translation of this version of the book into the relatively modern English language. However, some believers still prefer the “old” Bible, arguing that it transmits the deeper sense, sometimes omitted in the modern translations.
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4. Rituals and traditions. This part of any culture is the most conservative one that inevitably drags along a lot of archaisms in its idiolect. The rituals are called to preserve tradition, to remind the people of their roots, of the culture of their ancestors and thus to unite the nation. Check the tradition of editing developing throughout the centuries http://essay-editor.net/blog/the-meaning-of-proof-reading and the modern state of the area. We already mentioned that the usage of the archaisms is able to evoke the feelings of awe, holy terror or happiness, repentance and so on. Their half-mysterious, half-revealed meaning supported by some ritual actions can even cause a state of trans. The archaic words being recognized as such are not usually worked out by the conscious mind, but deal directly with the subconscious. The archetypes thus evoked can input a major importance to the ritual and ritual words. That is why such words and phrases are usually used at the unquestionably important stages of the human’s life: nursery rhymes that the mother chants for her baby, ritual of marriage when a man and a woman join their destinies forever (or at least so they believe), telling the folklore stories that preserve and transmit the wisdom of the nation. The peculiar thing with the ritual archaic lexis is that it is grounded on the early stage of the English language establishment, though some of the original texts may date still earlier periods. Compare the following words from the nursery rhyme about Miss Muffet: tuffet (still not determined, probably a footstool), curds and whey (not defined again, probably some food). Yet the rhythmic construction of the rhyme and the peculiar choice and combination of words have the hypnotizing effect on the language speakers. (If you do not know about Miss Muffet yet, it will be wholesome to select the folklore as another starting point for your English learning.) The importance of the archaisms in rituals can be illustrated by the wedding ceremony. Modern people engaged by their oaths can tell each other a hundred times, “I want to marry you”, but on a big day they will say, “I, James, take thee, Jill, to be my wedded Wife”. The same mechanism is applied to the folklore. The purpose of the latter is the transmission of the national wisdom and accustomed traditions, thus the importance of the process cannot be argued. The sayings and proverbs like betwixt and between (neither one thing, nor another), the beggar may sing before a footpad (bandit), give, and ye (you) shall receive transmit important rules of the human existence in the world. Besides, they have modern analogues: “in the middle position”, “who has nothing to lose loses nothing”, “good deeds do return” relevantly. Still, the use of the older idioms is still preferable in the present English tradition, which underlines the importance of this layer in the mind of the English speakers.
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Therefore, we have examined the pragmatic linguistic classifications of the archaisms and have established some of their important features. Now let us explore the inner structure of the archaisms and the way of their combination.
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Linguistic classification of archaisms. Semantic and syntactic aspects
In this clause we shall explore still more of the archaisms’ distinctive features, again by means of the classification. This time we shall take into account the semantic and syntactic aspects of the archaisms’ functioning in language, as well as their origin. Apply for the trustful essay and thesis proofreading, or consult our support team if some of the notions and terms in this clause are unknown to you.
The mentioned factors are purely linguistic. At the same time, they are also connected with the pragmatic function as the classification shows not only the way of the archaisms’ creation and functioning, but also the reasons and purpose of their remodeling and reconsideration in the modern language.
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The proposed classification illustrates the level of the language system within which the modification of an archaism has taken place; the way of acquisition of the new meaning by the archaism or graduate reduction of its layers of meaning.
1. Phonetic level. Here we can find words that have changed their way of being pronounced over the years. If someone pronounces such word as it was initially established, he or she would be considered old-fashioned or even eccentric. To avoid seeming queer and inadequate in your writing, stay in touch with the optimal dissertation proof reading service. The way of modification can refer to the different phonetic properties of the word. For example, antique used to be pronounced until XVIIIth century as [‘əntik], with the accent being placed on the first syllable. Yet, today we enjoy the pronunciation [ən’ti:k] with the accent on the second syllable. The word schedule used to be pronounced as [səd’ju:l], while in the modern language we have two different forms: [‘ʃədjul] in the British version of the English language; and [sked’ju:l] in the American variant. Many words beginning with “h” didn’t have that consonant pronounced until XXth century. For example, historian was used with the indefinite article “an”: an historian [ən is’toriən]. Meanwhile, today it is hard to find the word in the English language where the initial “h” would be omitted in pronunciation. Thus, the phonetic changes to archaisms include the modification of accent, the omitting or addition of the sounds, the changes to the pronunciation of the certain combination of sounds.
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2. Grammar level. The grammatical changes to the English language haven’t been significant over the centuries. Yet, some forms of the words’ conjugations have suffered changes and elimination. For example, the form hath represents an old form of “have”, but used only in the singular third person: She hath. Another example is the word thy, that used to signify the singular from of “your” (stressing on the belonging to one person instead of many). Alternatively, the conjugation of thou (thee) has completely vanished from the language, together with the form itself. Feel shaky with your grammar? Look for reliable grammar editing services on the internet. So, within the grammar, the modifications had mostly affected the removal of some forms, leading to the simplification of the language usage. The grammar level also includes the punctuation. However, as the English language is wont to remove punctuation as much as possible within last centuries, it may happen that any punctuation mark except for the comma between the homogeneous words will be soon considered as an archaism. Upgrade your punctuation skills by means of our comprehensive service, and be able to play archaic style whenever you need to!
3. Lexical level. On this level, we shall put the archaic words that have been replaced through the language development by the words with other morphological roots. Their meaning is difficult to derive out of the external form of the word. For instance, abject (low-spirited, worth contempt and despising), madrigal (who could think this could be a name for a lovely song), facinerious (wicked and villainous to a high extent). We see that the archaisms on this level can belong to different grammar categories and have different pronunciation, too. Yet the primary reason for placing them into this group of the classification is the way of their disappearance from the spoken language. If other words, not connected by meaning or grammatically to the initial words, have replaced them eventually, then we can call the modification the lexical one. Here we can also mention the words that have not changed their spelling or pronunciation through time yet have modified their meaning completely. For example, awful used to mean “awe worthy”, and thus had a positive meaning instead of the “horrible” in the modern English. The bundle of yarn used to be called clue (clew) before. Today this word means a key, solution to some puzzle or situation. If you would suddenly make some brisk or jerky move, it would be called flirting. Meanwhile, at present this word indicates the “emotional games”. Not keen on written English? Stop missing your grammar and lexical mistakes from today! Apply for our consulting service and start learning English in the modern way!
4. Syntactic level. The archaic forms of the language are not limited by the word’s content only. The way of the words’ being combined with each other, as well as their order in a sentence have changed greatly over the centuries. Such expressions as be it said (let it be said), thy sword hast thou turned on me (you have turned your sword on me) signify the peculiar way of the Passive Voice implementation in the old English language. The word order when the Object is put before the Predicate is also considered archaic and brings a flavor of romanticism into the speech: Your dignity [is what] put you on weights. It goes the same way with other auxiliary parts of the sentence: To the land of the green, they sailed. So, the syntactic archaisms do not deal with words’ meaning and shape, as the words can stay the same. However, the order in which the words are put can be considered as unusual and old-fashioned one.
By the way, some archaisms of the syntactic origin can be used as the politeness’ clichés. See how to use properly the polite expressions in your speech, and compare modern gallant words to the old-fashioned ways of politeness!
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5. Discourse level. This level of the language usage encompasses all the levels listed above. However, it is not a mechanical combination of archaic words with their queer pronunciation, put into unusual forms and scattered in the inconceivable order. The discourse implies the integrity reached by the harmonious combination of its elements. Sometimes introducing just slight modifications to the text may change its outlook and perception entirely. Compare the well-known nursing rhyme voided of the archaisms (two units): Miss Muffet sat on the buffet while eating some bread and cheese. We have changed just two words, but we received the line deprived of the rhythm and the charm of the folklore piece. That is why it takes a huge work and some talent, too, to recreate the discourse based on the archaic communication. However, such examples are known in the world literature, both scientific and fictional one. Look for the professionally outlined discourses on our web page!
The classification of the archaisms based on the structural levels of the language reveals the large scope of the archaisms’ usage in the modern English language. It is also a good illustration of the potential of any linguistic element for modification and adaptation to the ever-changing conditions of the reality. The archaisms, though representing falling out, fading elements, still preserve their functions and can acquire new ones over the time. Learning about the origin and the way of modification of the archaisms allows to look deeper into the history of the English language and favors the better understanding of the unique nature of the language and its processes, as well as widening the possibilities of its usage.
Getting deeper into the nature of archaisms may require more than just the beginner level of linguistic knowledge. Such linguistic phenomena as syntax, grammar, discourse imply complex research practices for their analysis. Here we offer to peruse the related posts helping to consider the language levels from the different points of view:
Are the archaisms the frequent actors in your speech? Which are your favorite ones? Let us stay tuned, and many interesting updates will follow! Check our website daily!
Evolution of archaism: What are archaic words?
Archaism and its meaning
The word “archaism” has two main meanings:
The word itself comes from the Latin variant of an ancient Greek word “αρχαΐος” that means “old / ancient”. An archaic word is an outdated language unit, which place has been taken by a synonym in a modern language. Previously linguistics gave the following interpretation of a term: an archaic language unit is a lexeme or another grammatical form that, due to the fact that a language was developing, was displaced by another lexemes or grammatical forms, but they are continued being used as stylistically marked units, for instance, in a poetry language to create a lofty style. It is important to distinguish archaic words from historisms, since historisms are the lexemes that are no longer used at all.
In highly stratified languages, such as English and Portuguese, archaic words may serve as the units of professional jargon. It is especially true for jurisprudence and religion.
An archaic word is a lexical item that is no longer used but an object or phenomenon that it used to describe still exists and gets different names. Another way, archaic words are the language units that were replaced by other more modern synonyms. The cause for the “birth” of archaic words is the evolution of language and renovation of its vocabulary – some words appear to replace others.
The out of common use lexemes do not go missing. They are preserved in the literature of the past, and also, they are preserved as the elements of some set phrases used in a particular situation and context. They are necessary for the historical texts and other works in order to recreate the everyday life and language flavor of a specific epoch. A modern language can keep the words formed from the lexemes that are no longer used today.
The importance of using archaisms
The usage of outdated words allows making a modern person closer to a particular historical time. The archaisms describe old places, cities and are used in many books. In order to know the history of one’s country or ethnos, it is important to know outdated words as well. Using such words, our speech becomes brighter and richer. Besides, these archaic units were passed from generation to generation, that is why a lot of people used to speak using such words, and it can be hard for them to replace the out-of-date words with their modern synonyms.
Extra functions of archaisms
Why do we need archaisms at all?
The archaic words are really important because they are still used in the particular fields, especially in the fields of law, government and religion. These spheres are the most conservative in our world, and they preserve a lot of words that are no longer used anywhere else. Also, another function of archaic words is that a person can use them in speech or writing to create the atmosphere of antiquity, as well as to add the flavor of formality to one’s language.