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To proofread your essays carefully, our professionals should know huge amount of grammar rules. Besides our specialists want to teach you some rules, tips and tricks about English language! So that you will be a bit more educated, without making huge efforts, but only reading our interesting and useful blog posts with a great pleasure. Today we are going to talk about adjectives in English language and how to use them in a proper manner, how not to make a silly mistake and so on.
Adjectives in English language
The adjective is the independent part of speech designating an attribute of a subject. It answers the questions "what?", "which?", "whose?".
The English adjectives, unlike adjectives in other languages, don't change depending on a noun gender or on singular or plural of the noun. For example:
Small boy; little girl; intelligent students; disobedient dog; kind old man and so on.
Structure of the English adjectives
The English adjectives are divided by their structure on simple, derivative and compound adjectives.
Simple adjectives don't incorporate suffixes and prefixes:
Yellow; green; sad; tall, short; sour; few; black; orange; happy; big; small; little, normal and so on.
As a part of derivative adjectives there is a suffix and/or a prefix:
Appreciable; incompatible; unequal; memorial; constant; infrequent and so on.
The following suffixes are characteristic of the English adjectives:
-able (countable; capable; laughable; navigable; agreeable; expendable; measurable; unquestionable; incomparable and so on)
-al (incidental; bridal; central; exceptional; punctual; virtual; unconstitutional; irrational; abnormal; aboriginal and so on)
-ible (extensible; irreversible; incomprehensible; permissible; ostensible; terrible; intangible; plausible and so on)
-ary (necessary; contrary; cautionary; honorary; military; tributary; rudimentary; revolutionary; auxiliary and so on)
-ed (disinterested; experienced; unreserved; inexperienced; advanced; prejudiced; developed; crooked and so on)
-en (sudden; woolen; unbeaten; forbidden; brazen; drunken; broken; poverty-stricken; panic-stricken and so on)
-ful (masterful; meaningful; graceful; reproachful; distasteful; eventful; plentiful; respectful; fruitful and so on)
-ic (optimistic; elastic; laconic; romantic; prolific; sarcastic; static; barbaric; pedantic; academic; semantic and so on)
-ish (brownish; yellowish; blackish; English; Turkish; varnish; bookish; coquettish; snobbish; mannish and so on)
-ant (vigilant; blatant; inelegant; abundant; significant; compliant; unimportant; pregnant; rampant; incessant and so on)
-ive (prospective; unresponsive; impassive; protective; abrasive; unobtrusive; lucrative; superlative; depressive and so on)
-y (funny; stuffy; dirty; nosy; cozy; faulty; powdery; untidy; creamy; speedy; slimy; curly; dainty and so on )
-less (blameless; stainless; cloudless; expressionless; thankless; tireless; lawless; tactless; childless; senseless and so on)
-like (unsportsmanlike; childlike; sportsmanlike; businesslike; bell-like; homelike; workmanlike and so on)
-ly (unfriendly; easterly; motherly; seemly; unsightly; unworldly; comely; lonely; neighborly; fatherly; daily; portly and so on)
-ous (famous; ridiculous; unanimous; monotonous; credulous; tremendous; ambidextrous; mischievous; murderous and so on)
And following prefixes:
un- (unmentionable; unexpected; undistinguished; unskilled; unarmed; unreserved; unconcerned and so on)
Compound adjectives consist of two or more stems:
Wide-eyed; blue-eyed; two-year-old; all-too-common; well-behaved; part-time; open-minded; brightly-lit and so on.
Types of Adjectives in English language
As the site “My English Grammar” tells us, there are several types of English adjectives:
1) Descriptive adjective
Descriptive adjectives are adjectives which describe or characterize nouns or pronouns. Here some descriptive adjectives are given. They belong to the color, the size or to the form of an object.
Mars is known as "the red planet".
Gill likes purple color, that’s why her dress is purple.
That kitty was so tiny!
The road between my house and my university is very narrow.
There was a huge chest in front of us.
2) Adjective of quantity
This type of Adjectives answer the following question: How many? How much?
She has eaten five bananas.
There were fifteen houses in that village.
This disgusting spider has so many legs!
I do not have much money today.
There is so much juice for children!
3) Demonstrative adjective
There are the following adjectives: THIS, THESE, THAT, THOSE.
This flat is very comfortable.
This balloon is bigger, than that balloon!
These students have got the highest marks among the whole university.
Those boys stole $5 yesterday.
These high-heeled shoes are more expensive, than those.
4) Possessive adjective
My – our;
Your – your;
His – their;
Her – their;
Its – their.
I spent my holidays on the Bali.
Her high-heeled shoes are immensely beautiful.
This must be his bag.
I think our children behaved well.
Their parents were classmates in their childhood.
An order of adjectives in English
If before a noun it is necessary to use several adjectives (it is preferably to use no more than three), they have to follow a certain order:
1. Article or other determinant (a, the, his)
2. Assessment, opinion (good, bad, terrible, nice)
3. Size (large, little, tiny)
4. Age (new, young, old)
5. Form (square, round)
6. Color (red, yellow, green)
7. Origin (French, lunar, American, eastern, Greek)
8. Material (wooden, metal, cotton, paper)
9. Mission (sleeping)
A clever old English man (article, assessment, age, origin)
A big square plastic bowl (article, size, form, material)
Mother’s huge yellow sleeping bag (determinant, size, color, mission)
If it is difficult to refer the English adjectives to any category, then it is possible to use other way of definition of an order: the adjectives designating more constant characteristic are put closer to a noun:
Funny small kitty;
Dirty high building;
Adjectives in a comparative and superlative degree always go before other adjectives:
The most expensive French blouse;
One of the most interesting books;
Deeper long river.
Functions of the adjectives in the sentence
Adjectives in English can play a role of attribute or a predicate nominative of a compound predicate.
Adjectives with function of attribute are put before the noun they belong to, but after its determinants:
I’ve found an old newspaper on the street.
We must get rid of mother’s old bicycle.
As a predicate nominative of a predicate they follow a link-verb:
This dog is very old.
That high building is attractive for customers.
Sometimes the English adjectives are used as the parenthetical word reflecting the author's attitude to contents of the sentence:
Incredible, that place is so friendly and warm!
Interesting, this girl did not even see him before they got married.
Fifty most widespread adjectives in English language:
Adjectives make our speech richer, more emotional, more colorful.
The English speech, as well as any other language, is boring and inexpressive without adjectives. Adjectives in English specify a subject, express more exact description and characteristic, help to express the mood of the speaker, the form, the size, the color of the particular thing.
Also you should remember that adjectives in English don't change on gender and number therefore having learned one adjective, you can use it for the description of different nouns as masculine, neuter, and feminine gender; both singular and plural number.
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