The Participle Crowd. Description And Classification
The language reflects the state of mind of the people who use it – that’s a common knowledge. As for English it constantly relays the idea of the active approach to life. It possesses a multi branch classification of the verbs and their forms, that express different sides of the Action; the Active mood and Indicative and Imperative inclinations are always in the preferable position in the oral and even written speech.
The variety of the verb forms thus is quite a grounded one. The action / process and its variations, slight modifications of meaning are described in detail and in most of the cases are marked with a separate Part of Speech. In case you need assistance with your grammar the online document editor is always there to answer all your questions and deal with your concerns.
One of the most diversified and frequently used Verb forms is Participle. It represents the non-finite Verb form that reflects the action presented as an Adjective, Adverb or Noun. Thus it possesses both the categories of the Verb, such as voice and tense, and those of the Adjective and the Noun – case, gender, number.
Just think of them winning that competition! – Active voice, Present Tense, Objective case, Plural number.
Yet the attributes of the Verb are more significant in Participles as they are involved in the Tense’ formation. The category of the Tense is used as the ground for the Participles’ classification. Some grammar determine three types of Participles according to this classification, but the most popular ones traditionally make two of them:
Present Participle. It is used to describe the actions that took place simultaneously with the speech or with other action. Mostly these are Continuous tenses: Simple Continuous and Perfect Continuous:
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Cassandra had been growing plants for three years already yet her neighbour’s garden still looked more tended while bustling with greenery.
The Present Participle is formed by adding the –ing ending, in the same way as Gerund: chasing, drinking, chatting. However they can be differed by their meaning: while Gerund is used to establish action as a process, with a function similar to that of the Noun, the Participle reflects the idea of the attribute, its function being close to that of the Adjective:
Her enlightening on the point of his theories was a pleasant revenge. - Gerund
Those enlightening ideas were just in time to arise. – Present Participle
Past Participle. These Participles are used to express the action that unfolded and completed in the period, previous to the moment of speech or to the described events. They take part in the forming of the Perfect Tenses:
The flying carpet has soared into the air and they caught the glimpse of the amazed faces of the crowd.
This type of Participles can be formed by two ways: either with the –ed ending (for regular verbs) or with the third form taken from the Irregular Verbs’ table (the irregular ones):
Luckily the railway wasn’t destroyed by the storming weather.
Given the circumstances I doubt that the ship would depart today.
Its another function is the forming of the Passive voice:
Jason was satisfied with his essay after its thorough proofreading.
As we see both types of Participles can be expressed by one word (listening, given) or with a word-combination (had listened, having been told). Thus they can be also formally divided into:
Simple forms – these are the most frequently used ones. They participate in the Tenses’ formation:
Though educated he never seemed to be boasting it.
That’s it, I’m done with it.
Complex forms – formed by means of the auxiliary verb have in order to form the Perfect forms. Used much less often than the simple ones:
Having been described this way he had to keep his reputation among the society.
The students had worked on their essays for hours already.
In the variety of its forms and types the Participle preserves the explicit attributes of the Verb. However in the syntax analysis they are often mixed up with Adjectives and other parts of speech. Let us have a look at their function in the sentence and see if we can find out the reason of such mistakes.
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What Does It Do? Participles’ Syntax Function
In the paragraph above we mentioned that the Participle, while representing the Verb, “behaves” as other parts of speech: Nouns, Adjectives, Adverbs. This “behavior” is reflected in the place the Participle occupies in the sentence. There are following syntax functions available for the Participle:
1. An Attribute. The Participles can serve as attributes of the Subjects, Objects and Supplements in the sentence. They can take the position both before the Noun and after it:
The breathtaking journey was coming to its close.
They listened to the melody flowing gently over the garden.
Having been laden low in the row, the missiles weren’t seen from the top of the hill.
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2. An Adverbial Modifier of the Time and Cause. The Participle details the time or the reason of the event:
Listening to the concert she was desperately trying not to fall asleep.
Liam and Jenny sat at the same desk, seated so by the teacher.
3. A part of the Complex Predicate. The Participle is always used as a second part of such Predicate and bears the primary meaning:
Lisa was awarded the first prize for her impeccable essay.
The faucet got covered in rust, mud, cobweb and could not be turned.
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4. A Complex Supplement to the Noun or Pronoun. The latters must be placed as Objects:
I heard a whistle blown hard.
They laughed at seeing him shaved.
There is a particularly interesting form of speech formed by the Participle in the function of the Complex Supplement preceded by the verb to have. Such forms indicate the action isn’t performed by the Subject itself:
The teacher had her umbrella repaired [by students or a craftsman].
The manager had the work done well [by employees] and was eager to present it at the board meeting.
Thus the Participle may perform the auxiliary functions in the sentence: those of the Attribute, the Complex Supplement, the Adverbial Modifier (of cause and time) make a part of the Complex Predicate. Keep a good line with your Participles in any function by means of the grammar-wise paper editing online.
However it is not an exhausting list of its capacities. The thing is, being the form of the Verb the Participle can subordinate other words in the sentence and form a demo-version of the sentence of its own. Let us explore its characteristics and functions in the next paragraph.
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Participle Phrase. Description And The Terms Of Usage
The Participle phrase is the part of the sentence that makes a sentence of its own, with a function of the Participle (which is most frequently the Adverbial Modifier function):
Given the situation the idea of breaking the window seemed reasonable.
Having called many times to no avail, Leslie decided to visit her friend the same day.
The Participle phrase can be described by the following features:
1. Except for the occasional nominative constructions, it normally has no subject:
Having spotted the theatre location we couldn’t make up our mind as to what to do next.
2. They can be formed by all types and forms of the Participles:
All remarks having been considered, the essay was ready for the final revision. – Past Participle, Complex form.
Enchanting as the melody, those flowers were. – Present Participle, Simple form.
3. The Participle phrase relays the less important information, reveals the details of the situation described in the main sentence’ clause:
Shortened by the editor the essay as if became brighter and more vivid.
4. The subject in the Participle phrase and in the main clause must be the same, except for the occasional derivatives:
Having blown the whistle the Captain ordered the ship to sail. – it is assumed that the Captain has blown the whistle.
Placing different subjects may confuse the reader or the listener:
The water bowl being emptied, the yard was cleaned. - It is not understood what is the connection between these two events (The kids have emptied the water bowl and cleaned the yard.)
5. The Participle Phrases that serve as Attributes can take a position only after the described subject in the sentence:
The lady serving the tea is my aunt.
The puppy playing with the kids is the Russel-Terrier.
6. The Participle phrases are used to make the text brief and more meaningful, besides they also perform the aesthetic function as they substitute a separate sentence and allow to avoid repetitions and lengthy auxiliary constructions:
Looking out of the window, she gasped. – While she was looking out of the window, she gasped.
Seated in the first row they enjoyed the concert enormously. – They were seated in the first row at the concert. They enjoyed it enormously.
7. The Participle phrases do not only adorn the text as the means of an elegant language. They can relay the same meaning with less words, and as the common fact goes, the briefness is essential in science. So if you are planning to place an order for you thesis edit make sure the Participle phrases were not omitted in the paper.
At the close, I’d like to sum up and make a parallel between the modern and traditional grammar.
Summing up we can make a following parallel between the two types of grammar.
So together we learned that the Participle represents a singular part of speech combining the attributes of the Verb, Adjective, Noun, Adverb with a strong presence of the former. It has two types and two forms and thanks to its tints of meaning is able to undertake various functions in the sentence. The Participle can form a Participle phrase that serves to the functional and aesthetic improvement of the text. Being flexible, a Participle phrase may also undertake different syntax functions though always making a subordinate clause with regard to the main one.
If you’re on the track of improving your English our recent articles will be helpful:
Can you differ “an exciting article” (the Participle) and “she was firm on exciting them with her language skills” (Gerund)? Let’s discuss the topic in particulars on our website!