Your Academic Proofreading Services
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In this post, we shall talk about such intricate and perplexing assignment as writing and editing a scientific article. Let’s analyze the pitfalls and necessary steps together!
What you should know about contacting the academic paper proofreading service
In order to save the money and time, as well as to make your article really unique and interesting, it is advisable to write it yourself. Your own style, your thoughts and even your own mistakes – that’s what makes the reader realize the text he or she reads was not made just as a “must do”.
However, if you are not a linguist and English is not your mother tongue, even the most perfectly composed article might turn out clumsy and incongruent when relayed in English. So, it is advisable to consult the experienced editor at the earliest stage – when preparing to write your scientific article or a college essay. We’ve started to discuss the topic in the previous post on Essay-Editor’s blog, and will continue doing that now.
So, briefly, in order to start the academic paper, you’ve got to draw an ample and logical plan. If you failed to do it from the beginning, there is always a possibility to correct it afterwards http://essay-editor.net/blog/editing-and-proofreading-service-will-help-you. The consistent and correctly developed plan is a fundamental condition of success of any paper – be it a scientific, popular or literary one. Still, any plan – even thoroughly verified and correctly developed – has the risks of insufficiency. It can be both under-planned and over-planned. There are also two types of the system flaws:
- All facts and theories are piled up and it is impossible to make head and tail out of them
The mechanism of the lamp is quite simple.
The design of the cover can be performed in different colors.
For your scientific works, engage only the experienced and knowledgeable editors. Browse the paper editing websites and pick the editing company suiting your requirements the most!
- The facts, thoughts, illustrations and conclusions are all arranged strictly, there is no space for the descriptions. The text consists only of lists and tables, has too many details – it is over-logical.
The lamp has following parts:
The cover can be performed in the following colors:
In a large household, it is impossible to take each trifle into account; and is useless, too. It’s the same thing with the academic paper. You cannot “embrace the limitless” as the world, event, things constantly move and change. Any researcher must know that. If the plan becomes more important than the task, the household (the whole scientific work) becomes clumsy and unresponsive to the natural conditions. In case you study several similar objects and events, your research must not remind a thoroughly filled in questionnaire – the same for all of them.
Now, for the main body of the academic paper. If the topic chosen had been studied by the scientists before (and mostly, this is the case), first of all, you’ve got to describe the things that are already known. Sometimes, this would be enough for your academic paper (for some essays, for instance). Check the types of the academic papers, if you are not sure about them. However, there is a challenge: usually, the works dedicated to some issue are quite voluminous, and it is next to impossible to master them all. That is why; in this issue, the assistance of the teacher is invaluable.
Be critical when choosing the theoretical background for your paper. Many people tend to trust the sources on the Internet and even more so to the printed ones, yet, some of them might turn to be not accepted in the scientific society. Still, most of the scientists today publish and post their works on the Internet. Sometimes, the unknown author can have his or her works designed in the way that is close to the scientific style. In this case, you’ve got to be the judge for the solidness of the information. Check the way the information is relayed, if there are references and if they are to be trusted, whether the narrative is logical and consistent or not.
If you feel, something went wrong and you are not able to represent your research consistently, have a small break. Then, try to revise the paper from the beginning. In case you do not succeed, contact a professional editor. Send a message “Rewrite my academic paper!” through our Live Chat and receive the optimal conditions for your editing!
Anyhow, the academic paper does not consist solely of the description of the generally known facts. In case you’ve got your own developments (facts, ideas), you might well compare them to the ones you’ve already relayed, reflect possible discrepancies. It is possible, that the new developments argue the ones that were worked out before. If that is the case, you’ve got to explain why. Sometimes, the unexpected conclusion of the high school essay might turn out to be a new scientific revelation. Interesting conclusions, spotted logical consequences make another step on the way to the world’s cognition.
What’s the aim?
As we’ve seen from the above, the goal prescribes the ways of the research. That is why; when writing an academic paper, you’ve got to realize your final goal – what you are going to state. Describe the present state of science in the field? Ground your own ideas? Justify your practical experiment? State some new logical pattern that was not recorded before?
Here we come closer to the practical side of the academic paper. Why do scientists write them? See some reasons described http://essay-editor.net/blog/a-tricky-task--how-to-proofread-my-document-properly and the ways to edit your works. Unfortunately, today many scholars, especially young ones, do not have all the conditions for developing their research, especially, when the latter requires some serious financing (like buying expensive laboratory equipment, chemical substances, spare parts for the electronic devices, some developed computer programs and so on). Many scientists today perform their works basis the grant funds, received in the end of a contest.
How to obtain the grant? There is plenty of information and advice on the Internet. We shall outline only the main features of getting the grant and financing your research (and sometimes, your living, too). The expert committee that distributes the grants must believe in you as a researcher. In order to persuade the committee in your potential, you’ve got to:
1. Represent your idea briefly. Do not waste time on the solid theoretical explanation. Just briefly mention it, without the names of the scientists, and go straight to your own developments. Do not make that long, too. Extract only the innovative part of the idea and its practical meaning, and relay that.
2. Represent your idea properly. Show the committee that you know the way to save the energy and the time of the committee members. Use the visual schemes, diagrams, electronic slides, 3D models, actual things.
Instead of explaining in many words the property of the heat,
bring the lighted candle near the palm of your interlocutor.
3. Represent your idea in a new way. This can be as some innovative technology (for example, using the hologram board), as some unusual approach to the topic demonstration (appealing to the spectators during your presentation, for instance). See the ways to represent your scientific ideas outlined in a smart review.
4. Justify your academic status. You can provide the references from your teachers, your college, some valued professors. However, the thing that would be studied closely in this regard would be the number of your publications (the academic ones, for sure).
So, one of the principal factors influencing the distribution of the grants is the publishing activity of the party claiming the grant. Let’s study this moment more closely.
Publish or Perish – how it works
A published article is the measure of the scholar’s maturity and professionalism. It demonstrates your ability to put forward and solve the non-trivial scientific issue. The scientific publication is a statement of some new results reached in a certain sphere of science. Thus, it also reflects the author’s capacity to find out the new issues and non-standard scientific solutions.
Everyone knew about dogs and their habits. But only in XIX century
Ivan Pavlov discovered the conditional reflex and the way to provoke it – basis those very dogs!
There is another point in publishing your discoveries. However useful and important they are, no one would know about them, unless you publish the results. Meanwhile, for other scientists and practical specialists, your discoveries might be a valuable step to the further scientific revelations. And certainly, it would be upsetting to find out that someone else has discovered the same thing that you did, and was praised for that, while you have been left outside.
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We can say the scholarship has the rule “publish or perish”. It is obvious that the publishing of the articles in the respected academic journals is not just the means of creation of your image of a serious scholar. It is the inseparable part of the scientist’s activities playing an outstanding role in his or her career.
However, while writing and publishing their first article, the young scholars face a serious challenge that often comes out of psychological reasons. Fear of failure, uncertainty of the importance of the discovery, the “perfectionist’s paralysis” making the author constantly polish and weed the article, until there is left nothing but the well-known theoretical facts. All these factors are inspired by the lack of the experience in publishing the academic papers and by the fragmentary knowledge of the issues of the publishing process.
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Starting to write the article for a scientific journal
Getting to work on the scientific article, the young scholar might be confused from the very beginning. How to start? What to say first? Should you relay the results at once or start with the theoretical description? Or, maybe, quote someone of the great scientists? Or making a light joke? All these questions come at once and make a pile that grows on, until there is no certainty at all.
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Let us discuss the ways to start writing an academic article:
- Preparing the abstract. The abstract is often written before the other parts of the article. It is obligatory presented in the request for a grant, in the conference participation request and so on. The abstract might be prepared long before the scientific work is finished, and the article is ready. That’s a regular thing: the problem exists long before the actual solution is found and all the facts and results are properly verified. Need someone to prepare a consistent abstract for your paper? Contact the best dissertation proofreading services company in the UK! The abstract relays briefly the problem the researcher is planning to solve and the ways and means he or she is going to involve in order to do it. If you wish that your paper would be easily accessible, it’s got to be indexed properly by the search engines. For that, it must contain the relevant key words that serve as the search tags. Include from 3 to 10 key words that would reflect the field of science your article refers to, along with the actual objects it involves.
Key words of my studentship are:
Parties, sports, hanging out… what else?
Oh, yes, studying!
Today the scientific articles are frequently published in the electronic journals not having a printed analogue. The fresh works are usually found by the tags; that is why, it is highly important to draw the key words that are relevant to your research. The proper tags can boost your popularity: the more often your work is found on the Internet, the more popular your discoveries would be. Your article would be quoted and cited or referred to in other ways. In this way, your index of citing would grow. If you are not a popular scientist yet, you’ve got to build your abstract properly in order for it to be presented in return to the search request of the relevant topic. Consider your potential reader, too. Are you writing an article intended for the scientific society or your main reader would be a student? Otherwise, you might be preparing a work that makes the science closer to the non-scientific circles. Taking into account the personality of the reader would also influence the choice of the key words and tags.
Preparing a sociological research on age and gender differences for the popular reading, do not place the “regular” key words like “puberty”, “gender specifics”, “sociological study”.
Instead, use “child conflict”, “men and women”, “statistics”.
- Outlining the materials and methods of the research. Sometimes, in order to draw a framework of the article, all you need is to understand clearly what you are going to describe and in what way. For that, you might use a rough draft, where you would amass all the materials relevant for your research. Then, your task is to narrow down your issue and cross out the materials that do not refer to it directly. Do not cross them with a thick line, though. Many of them would be handy for illustrating your thoughts and conclusions, as well as for making the references.
Honest bibliography list
Total: 52 sources
Actually quoted: 5 sources.
While describing the methods of the research, do not go too deep, unless otherwise is prescribed by the edition you are going to publish your article in. Usually the reader would not make any use of the knowledge that you have grounded your study on the dialectic method of cognition. This would not bring you more weight. All that such statement would inspire is a yawn. That is why, when listing your methods, be specific and precise. Mention only the techniques you have actually used, avoid stating the immanent ones just for filling up the space.
The methodological foundation of the research:
The Copy-and-Paste technique.
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- Writing the conclusion. Sometimes, you know the result before you start to convey the research. Such studies are not useless, though. The hypothesis, proven by a different method or technique, might become a grounded theory. Additionally the introduction of the new methods or the change of focus in the object’s research might provide a breakthrough in the actual field or, generally, in all the science!
The scaling has been long considered the tool of the hard science.
However, with the discovery of the Emotional scale the psychology has received a new powerful tool.
For a long time, people knew but never actually realized that the blue color is associated with sadness, and the letter “A” is considered large and bright.
Otherwise, the research might be dedicated to the classification of the already known facts, theories and methods and thus, be valuable for the development of the specific field of science with introducing no actually new knowledge.
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The conclusion is usually written as a final part of the work. It might happen that the student does not cope with writing in time and there is no time to make a thorough proofreading. Sometimes, a work needs an urgent revision, as some serious flaws might be spotted only at the final stage. Here you will find a company revising an essay within 6 hours, and at a moderate price!
- Drawing the illustrations and tables. For the certain types of thinking, the best way to arrange the information would be representing it in the visual way. Arranging the data in the diagrams, tables, illustrations helps to classify and analyze it, as well as to discover some new interesting patterns. In this regard, you can start by drawing the lines for the tables and filling them in with the data you collected. During this process, the basic theses of your article will become clear. All you will have to do is writing down your observations and conclusions.
You can waste piles of paper sheets describing in detail the principle of the molecule’s inner structure.
Or you can simply draw it on a ¼ of the sheet – and explain everything.
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Thus, the preparation can take different forms, but it can be successful only in case it leads to the desired result – a consistent and innovative academic paper. However, a solid preparation is not the only condition securing the success of your scientific article. Let us see what other aspects must be considered and what steps taken – in the next clause.
Language and style – balancing between the individual and generally accepted
The academic papers require a special kind of language to be used – the academic style. It contains certain requirements to the words’ choice (a text full of specific terms is considered regular), narrative strategy (the researcher is to be modest and relay the information impersonally: less “I”, more “us” or “was performed”), logical structure of the text.
Get more vivid examples of a perfect academic style and learn more about everything! Welcome to the entertaining section of the Essay-Editor blog! Learn more facts that are interesting with us!
Certainly, you might fail catching the academic style right from the start. Your essay or another academic paper might undergo several revisions before it looks like a scientific work. In order to overcome the challenge of your academic style’ development, it is useful to take the following steps:
1. See how others do it – read at least three works of the same kind (essay, practical report, theoretical synthesis) performed by the more experienced authors. Look for the authors who have many articles in their “academic portfolio” and the estimation of the scientific society. Some of them might have as many articles written that can joke, as Martin Novak does:
I never read the articles by other authors – that’s plagiarism.
In order to make such learning effective, make a list of the useful words and speech patterns that would help you build your own academic style. It is especially wholesome when you write an academic paper in your second language.
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2. Upon drawing the first draft of your paper, you can approach the people who are good at language and speech. These might be philologists, linguists, journalists and, for sure, editors. While the latter will do the task professionally, which implies they have to be knowledgeable with regard to the topic of your article, the others might know nothing about it. However, they’ve still got a valuable asset – a skill of making the narrative precise, logical, consistent and harmonious. To do this on your own might turn out to be rather difficult, even if it does not seem so at the first glance.
Right words in a right order.
If you choose the editor’s assistance, though, it would not mean that you failed to perform the work yourself. The editor does not make a discovery; he or she only helps you to tell about it. At the same time, working with the professional editor who is knowledgeable in the academic papers you enrich your own knowledge and train your language skills, too. Analyzing the changes introduced to your paper, you can make conclusions with regard to the style and narrative strategy.
As we see, it is not easy to maintain the academic style, yet make your article interesting and even exciting. There is a particular profession that managed to unite these qualities – the scientific journalists. A scientific journalist is a person who manages the language well, can write easily and in an interesting way about the scientific achievements. Learn about the skills and occupation of the scientific journalists, in order to form a full picture of them. Sometimes, though, they might lack preciseness in relaying the facts. Meanwhile, the “orthodox” scientists usually lack emotions when describing their works. They consider the science as a serious hard labor, and the scientific discoveries – as a result of this labor, not having the space for joking. Thus, their texts are usually too dry, too precise and too boring.
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Experienced scientists and scientific journalists advise never to stop working on your article, both on content and shape. Whether you are drawing the tables or weeding out the typos, always think, what else might come out of your hypothesis. Look for the new connections, comparisons, develop your conclusions. This will allow you to win the reader’s sympathy with regard to your interesting and integral narrative. It is important to remember that the Art of writing the consistent and comprehensive texts is an art you can master. All you need is to apply some efforts in this regard: read the manuals, attend the courses, consult the experienced specialists, practice.
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Title – name your work
As you know, nomen est omen – the name signifies the essence. Letting your essay drift in the ocean of the scientific works, remember to give it an appropriate name, so it could be discerned properly among the other writing works on the topic.
Look for the most appealing and professional titles – check the examples of the academic works on our website! We’ve created a special compartment so you could easily find just what you need!
Though the name of the writing work is, usually, the shortest part of it, it also must adhere to certain rules, if you are writing an academic paper:
- Coordinate with the topic. The name of the article or other academic paper must show right from the beginning what it is all about. The reader must have an opportunity to grasp the general topic at once and decide, whether the article is interesting for him or her.
Have you chosen the name for your article on the shellfish?
Not yet. Maybe, “Three tips how to use your clamps in a wild nature”?
- Contain the key words. Since the name is usually a short passage, you may use only one key word for it. This, however, will increase the chances for the work to be found on the Internet at request.
I browsed all the recent articles on the topic but haven’t spotted your entry!
Did you look for the keywords “made in haste” and “I hate writing”?
- Indicate a general conclusion. All types of the logical conclusions http://essay-editor.net/blog/why-is-it-better-to-use-the-papers-editing-service and the consistent structure of your paper are guaranteed by our service! Managing to reflect a general result of your work in the name of the article, you boost the article’s chances to be found by the readers interested in your particular topic. In this way, you indicate at once, what the article is about. The readers, in their turn, have all the information and can decide immediately, whether the article is of interest to them.
“Lobsters are not patriots”? What does it mean?
That they tend to migrate within a certain area.
- Be short, not shortened. Certainly, when writing an academic paper, you cannot avoid using the shortened forms of the terms That saves the space and also demonstrates your awareness of the topic. Besides, some abbreviations are generally known and are not perceived as such. For example, radar, DNA, F (Fahrenheit). However, try to avoid the usage of the specific abbreviations in the name of the article. It might happen that the inexperienced reader, such as 1st year student, would be scared off by the mass of the specific terms and abbreviations. Meanwhile, in most of the times, they can be relayed in much more acceptable way.
The influence of Hg and p. ions of F to the SNS.
Do not get scared. It means:
How mercury and fluorine influence your reactions.
The title of your article must be solid and respectable, inspire the curiosity. Sometimes, it is possible to change completely the reader’s attitude by simply changing the title or arranging it differently.
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For example, there is a generally accepted practice of making the “colon’s title”. The first part of such title contains a general topic; then comes the colon. The second part of the name specifies the theme of the current work.
Baroque decorations: Drawing the structure-bearing columns.
Sometimes, the author makes the title humoristic in order to attract the readers and inspire their sympathy. Then, the first part of the “colon title” would be general and contain a joke, while the second one must reflect the actual topic of the academic paper.
Out of the shell: The structure of the lobster’s skeleton.
However, joking and appealing titles must be used with caution. There is a chance that a reviewer will not estimate your joke high, and decline your entry.
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Should we go global? Choosing the language
Today we witness globalization affecting all spheres of the human activity: communication, education, food, work etc. Science is global in its essence. For the consistent development of science, it is highly important that the scholars share and discuss the results of their work. That is why, at all times, the invention of the global scientific language was among the priorities of the linguistics. Still, the specific sciences had been also developing their own sub-languages (for example, the abbreviations’ system of indicating the chemical elements, the Latin terms in medicine and so on). Find out more about the problem of developing science in different languages.
Today, English has become a language of the international science. If you wish your input to become generally known (and generally criticized, too), translate your article into English and submit it for publishing to some of the popular and respectable journals (e.g., American Journal of Sociology). Some scientists, being non-native English speakers, write their articles in English only, in order to expand the number of their readers and be able to discuss their work with any other scholar.
However, in order to support the domestic science, many of the respectable authors choose to publish their works in native language. In this case, they are often translated into English, too. In this way, the rating of the domestic scientific society grows, as many readers would apply to it as a primary source. Thus, each scholar may make his or her input to the support of the domestic science.
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Certainly, such scheme implies that a considerable time to be spent on the article. Instead of just publishing it the way it is, the author must translate it properly, taking into account the peculiarities of the English language and some particular moments of translation.
“Using clamps for communication” – is that an article about electricity’ issues?
In case you do not have sufficient knowledge of the English language or easily get lost in the English terminology of your specific field of science, you can always use the assistance of the professional interpreters. Most of the editors, also, can translate your article into English efficiently.
But, what to do if your research is rather a small one not claiming the general popularity? Still, it might be performed on a high level and its results might be worth publishing. In this case, the experienced scientists advise publishing the results in the local academic edition, along with the quality translation to the English language. In this way, you will ensure your results are secured and are accessible, while there is no need for revising the article in order to make it appropriate to the high-level international journal.
Whatever the size and significance of your research is, its correct execution will always bring you some extra points in the editor’s estimation. Polish your grammar using recommendations from our posts! See how to start the text, to make a correct adverbial clause, to use the participles in your speech. Write in English as in your mother tongue!
At the same time, if you are planning to publish your academic paper in the international edition, writing an article in English and then translating it would take a lot of time and effort, while the result might turn to be insufficient. The reason is that the text must be structured taking into account the specifics of the language. The direct line-by-line (or even word-by-word) translation would, in most of the cases, look clumsy and inappropriate. Certainly, if you hire an experienced specialist for translation, your article would not lose any of its merits. However, it is crucial for the scholar him- or herself to know English on at least intermediary level, in order to estimate the result. The discussion and polemic, should they arise, would be held in English as well, thus, it is important to enhance your English language skills constantly.
It’s great if you have decided to proofread your article yourself. Whatever the experience of the editor is, your knowledge of the topic would still be more specific and consistent. Think that you need additional editing? Make a Google search for “efficient techniques to reword my work”. Otherwise, simply read the Essay-Editor’s blog web page.
Building the publishing strategy
The historical examples of G. Mendel, A. Popov, Wright brothers justify the thesis “Publish or Perish”. The activity of the scientist and his or her attitude to the own work is a fundamental factor establishing the popularity of his or her works. Wright brothers were accepted to publish their fantastic discovery only by the beekeeping journal, initially. However, their active position and the essence of the discovery have boosted their popularity immediately upon discovering the article by the general science.
A. Popov published his essay on radio discovery only in lapse of the time, and thus, in the world mind, the amazing invention is firmly fixed by the name of G. Marconi.
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G. Mendel, being a monk, was quite modest about his grandiose achievements, and published his fundamental article about genetic mechanisms in an edition having rather narrow auditory of readers – “Works of the Natural Philosophers’ Society”. In this way, for another 50 years genetics stayed unknown to the wide circle of scholars. Who knows what would be works of Ch. Darwin, J. Down, K. Marks, should they be aware of Mendel’s discovery?
The advantage of publishing lays in the fact that someone would eventually read your article. Who knows, what this might result in.
However, the brilliant work might be read not by a scientist or someone realizing its importance. In this case, it is possible that the article would be left unattended. For the general science, this would be equal to non-existence.
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Today, this rule is even stricter. It is not enough just to be read by someone. In order to promote your results and your scientific career, your article must be read and quoted upon – and not just once. The higher is your scientific rating, the more popularity your academic results gain.
There is a special Hirsch index that demonstrates the rating of a scientist in a global scientific community. It shows the correlation between the quantity of the published works and the quantity of quotes from them. Get the explanation of the Hirsch index and many other writing and editing issues http://essay-editor.net/blog/what-you-should-know-about-essay-proofreader and become a pro in the academic writing!
As we see, locating your article in the right place might both increase and decrease your scientific popularity rating. In order to choose the right edition, consider three factors:
1. Thematic. If you’ve made a technological or scientific breakdown, as Wright brothers did, you might be lost as to the thematic of your discovery. Though modern science has more than 60 spheres, each having numerous subdivisions, still the particular discovery might fit several spheres at once or not even a single one. Briefly, the rule is quite simple. Pick the journal that is closest in this thematic to the topic of your research.
Philosophers believe they are basic.
Biologists believe they are realistic.
Physics scholars believe they are commanding.
Pupils think they are nothing compared to the football cup against the neighboring school.
2. Journal’s status. It is natural, especially for a young scientist, to have ambitions for promoting his or her career and aim high right from the beginning. However, overestimating the importance of your work (or underestimating the status of the journal) you might encounter the denial on the part of the solid scientific editions. This, however, does not mean your work is non-important. It is much probable that it should be represented in another way. For example, not claiming some discovery but stating its classification and analytical merits. By correctly estimating the status of your work, you might save a lot of effort and time – editors’ and yours.
In order to ensure the highest quality of your paper, fir for publishing in serious academic editions, contact our top-rated thesis proofreader online. The shape of the article and its language are the factors that the journal editors consider first. Make sure you do not lose the first round!
3. Quoting index and impact factor (IF). The impact factor shoes how much citing the average article in this journal receives for two years’ period. Obviously, the higher is the IF, the more popular the journal is. The more successful scientist you are considered, if your article appears in such a journal. Besides, If also shows how many active readers the journal has. Thus, choosing a journal with a high IF, you provide for the bigger popularity of your article in the scientific community.
Certain patterns might help to increase the quoting index of any article. For example, when you provide some comprehensive classification or explain some difficult moments in the simple language. Else, you might insert some popular anchors into your paper, like efficient scientific article. Pay attention that such inclusions must seem natural and not to clash with the whole text. If you are not keen on adding such things, simply write a note to our editor “Reword my paper urgently” – and get it back reworded within just a few hours!
It must be mentioned, that IF indicator is not relevant for the specific journals. The thematic journals like “Journal of Applied Microbiology” might have comparatively low IF, but be a highly influential edition in their field.
Sometimes, other considerations might prevail while publishing an article in a journal with lower impact factor. If you’ve got a competitor in science, it might be crucial to post an article and state your discovery earlier than the competitor would do that. Here, as the saying goes, all means count.
Be critical when estimating the journal with regard to the listed factors. It happens that the journal aims at increasing its citing factor and publishes the sensational but not thoroughly verified information. In this case, its IF might be high, but the reputation in the scientific society would be spoiled.
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Recently, a new model of the relationship “journal – author” has appeared. Many respectable academic editions embody the business model that foresees that the author pays for the publishing of his article, while the article is accepted only under conditions of the preliminary review by the journal’s specialists. Thus, it is not the reader who pays for the journal, but the author, who pays for reaching the reader. Unfortunately, such model is often inspired by the editor’s desire to minimize risks relating to the low quality content of most of the articles, and to receive a bigger profit. Such journals usually do not review the articles and publish every paper that was paid for, without limitations. Having your article published in such edition might expand your auditory to some extent, but, most likely, it won’t be the reader you aimed for. As to your reputation, it would certainly not benefit out of such publication.
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However, there are also the respectable scientific journals that also maintain such model of cooperation with authors (for instance, PLoS journals). In such editions, the review of the article is not a pure formality; the essay is analyzed both with regard to its contents and execution, as well as considering its scientific meaning.
Now, we have approached the notion of the scientific review and or / critic. Let us discuss it in detail in the next clause.
Meanwhile, how our authors can help you in solving the issues with your English writing. Here are the recent posts:
Scientific review: a good practice
Reviewing of the academic papers make a separate voluminous theme. If you never met with a review before, check a comprehensive article regarding the critical review. The scholar meets a reviewer in any other scientist who reads his or her works. At the same time, just reading the articles of other scientists, the scholar becomes a reviewer himself. Sometimes even the involuntary one. The review can be performed in two ways:
- By request. The author wishes another scientist whom he or she knows well and respects, to review his work in order to indicate possible unnoticed flaws, prospects of the development, even to help to solve a difficult problem.
- Due to requirements. The scientific sphere, as any other field of activity, has its own rules and regulations. One of them is the obligatory review of the serious academic papers (magister work, dissertation, scientific article and so on) by the independent reviewer. Thus, if you plan to make a career in science, you’ve got to be prepared to meet the reviewer’s expectations or at least be ready to contradict him or her and prove your own point of view.
The author asks the editor,
Can we skip the reviewing stage for my article?
You can certainly skip this stage. However, then, we will skip your article.
Thus, the stage of the review is unavoidable in science. That is why; it is useful to know the approach and tips of the reviewers and to have an “antidote”, in case they turn to be against you.
You will be ready for all the tricky questions and offers, once you’ve read the article on tips for paper checking. This comprehensive material will certainly come in handy when dealing with any critic of your writing.
For instance, it is quite often that the reviewers advise that the students quote their own works. In this way, they make use of their position and increase their rating. Some of them, though, might not do it directly but to ensure all the conditions for you to choose their own work.
Extract from a review:
The work is performed on a high level. Still, it could benefit from quoting also, the articles dedicated to the statistical analysis of the local market.
The one about Minnesota.
With two authors, one of them having his name starting with Jac…
You should always remember that your first reader is the editor of the journal. Thus, your article is very close to a letter sent to his or her address. It is only if you please the editor (i.e. convince him or her of the top quality and significance of your work), your “letter” will reach its final recipient – the reader.
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The choice of the reviewers is also the responsibility of the editor. Some journals might offer the author to pick the reviewers in order to relieve a considerable load of work from themselves. You can make use of such offer, but only to some extent. It is not advisable to offer people who work closely with you, your relatives and certainly not your students. Pick someone who you think might be benevolent, yet, always consider the reputation and actual academic input of the reviewer. Nominating a person who supposedly has the opposite view but is an outstanding scientist would be looked upon as a courageous deed. Besides, this would state your confidence in your work and your readiness to the fruitful discussion.
Rewriting an academic essay efficiently, by taking into account all the reviewer’s remarks, might take a considerable time.
Dealing with the reviewer
In the XXth century, the reviews were much more popular, and were prepared much more thoroughly. The review of the article containing 16 pages could reach more than 10 pages. The review had been prepared for quite a long time (about two weeks), the reviewer should have penetrated into the essence of the research and become almost its co-author.
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Today we have another picture. The reviews are performed swiftly, most of the times the editors and reviewers do not even read the work thoroughly. It happens due to the large number of tasks and occupations that the editor and reviewer have. Thus, if you’ve received a detailed review that is not just a “write off”, but a thorough critical study, be sure to thank the reviewer sincerely for taking his or her time and giving so much care to your work.
There is another side of the moon, too. The editors do not have the time to plunge deep into the topic you pursue. In this regard, should your text feature the stylistic discrepancies, grammar flaws or be inconsistent, it might be rejected even without thinking. Make sure your text is impeccable both in content and in shape – and send it to the journal.
Pay close attention to details. Make sure not to abuse the Passive Voice constructions – in English, the Active Voice is preferable. Check the rules for the usage of the English Passive Voice. Write confidently!
At the same time, in case your work is rejected, there is but a slight chance for the editor stating the real cause of denial. Most likely, you will receive some polite general phrase, like
Your article has provided a real interest to the editorial.
However, the policy of our edition does not include the thematic direction of your work.
Hope for prolonging our cooperation in future.
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However, not all the reviews are created for simply “doing the needful”. Let us see what steps you should take when you receive a real review, containing the actual thoughts and ideas of another scholar regarding your work.
1. Read the review. This point seems to be the simplest one, however many authors miss it completely, should they see the word “accepted” in the notification. However, an editor might have a point of view, different from that of the reviewer. The editor can directly indicate which remarks should be considered seriously and which require just a formal reply.
2. Estimate the review. In most of the cases, the review would contain all types of remarks: general and specific, formal and substantive. Your task is to discern and classify them.
The review of my article reaches 12 pages while the article itself has 9 only.
Could I take a review of a separate article?
3. Substantial changes go first. If a reviewer has indicated some serious flaws in your work that you agree with, apply all efforts to rectify them. When describing your actions I the response to the review, you can use a handy tip. Thank the reviewer for a remark and mention that you have spotted the flaw yourself (if possible, indicate the paragraph in your text that at least nominally refers to the matter). In this way, you will demonstrate your respect to the reviewer and show you haven’t performed your work in a haste.
Sometimes, you can even address the reviewer in your explanation letter. It is valid not only for the scientific articles, but also for your college works. Ask questions if you have them, showing your respect for the reviewer’s experience and skills.
How else am I to edit my thesis and make it impeccable?
4. Deal with the rest. Any review would contain some remarks about the formal side of the work. They mostly bear the linguistic character. As the practice shows, it is easier to correct the text than to discuss the ground of such remarks.
I believe that the Oxford comma is important.
Okay, and fine, and I agree.
Having troubles adjusting your article, with regard to the grammar issues? Look for all the reliable grammar manuals on our website! Check the way to coordinate the Tenses, rules of usage of the Passive Voice, the peculiarities of Adverb in the English grammar… Just state your question – the reply is ready!
5. Explain in detail why you disagree. The review and editor’s corrections might feature the remarks you completely disagree with. If introducing the changes would entail the non-desired consequences for your text, state so and explain our opinion in detail. Be polite, though, never question the status and professionalism of the reviewer.
Even if you think the editor and reviewer are incompetent and do not make head and tail of your topic, use the fine English phrase “We respectfully disagree”.
If the editor requires that you perform an additional work that would make a completely separate research, mention the topic is too important for you and you were thinking to dedicate a separate article to it. The only thing, the good manners require that in such case you would eventually make such a research.
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By the way, if the reviewer has proposed a really consistent new idea and you have included it into your work, it is still useful to show (or at least to pretend) that you were thinking about it yourself. Now, when your idea was supported by the reviewer’s offer, you’ve decided to embody it. Such a trick might help to dissolve an impression that your project has been raw and not thoroughly designed.
When you prepare a corrected version, make the changes visible – mark them by color or turn on a special mode “change save”. Some editors require this, too.
Do not just send off a new version of your article. Prepare a short comprehensive cover letter, stating the reviewer’s comments, your replies and the changes introduced. Be brief; do not make a cover letter more than a page.
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Try not to argue, mention that you either agree and have modified your work, or disagree. As an introduction, state briefly what major changes have been made and what additional research has been held. All this increase your chances to have your article published without a second round of reviewing.
Usually, the journals provide four types of reviewer’s recommendations and editor’s decision:
- Accept as it is – it means that your article corresponds to the requirements and does not require further reviewing
- Accept with minor revision – in such cases, an editor checks if the changes have been introduced in a new version of the work
- Accept conditionally (major revision) – this usually implies an additional reviewing of the text, upon the introduction of the changes
- Decline – this happens when a reviewer has spotted some serious flaw in your work, and the editor foresees that the correction would take too much time.
Reviewers are your opponents in the promotion of your work. However, the pro-active attitude would be regarding a review as the means of development. Read the review attentively and be honest with yourself. Sometimes, admitting your own deficiency (and correcting it) might give you the editor’s respect and increase the chances of your article to be published.
Most remarks of the reviewer can be foreseen if you perform a thorough proofreading of your work before submitting it to the journal. Get the honest proofreading services rates and have the smallest review!
Who’s the author?
The authorship is the most delicate issue in the scientific activities. It often happens that the achievements of one person are assigned to the whole team, or to another person. Sometimes, the idea might be formed in the regular conversation. Developing it further entails the scruples with regard to the participation of the idea’s author in it. In all the cases, the decision regarding the authorship must be taken by the head of the project.
A head of the project is a position that implies coordination of the scientific project – an embodiment of some idea. The head of the project might be the main “engine” and the author of the primary idea, but, in most cases, this is usually the person who coordinates the work of other participants. However, not all the decisions of the manager are accepted willingly by the team. The conflict might arise at the most sensitive spot – the authorship issue.
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There are several ways to determine the authorship and prevent the unjust discrimination. The scientific editions provide ample possibilities for the participant to state his or her role in the research.
- Sequence of authors. First goes the author who made the biggest input into the work, the one who has held a practical research. Then go other authors with regard to their input – from bigger to less. The last must be a head of the project or a head of the laboratory. In case two scholars have performed the equal parts of the work, then they can be mentioned under the category “Joint first authorship”.
- Some scientific editions introduce the special compartment in the end of each article. There the input of each author is described in full. Here the “additional authors” who have not performed any part of the work would be “revealed” at once. An editor even might exclude such “author” out of the authors’ list.
- The “Gratitude” compartment. Here a person, who influenced the project in some way but did not take actual part in it, might be mentioned.
The authorship issues are solved in a different way. This is especially valid for the individual authorship. Many bright students have been unknown to the academic society because their curators stated themselves as the first or even single authors of their works. Some students might rebel against such discrimination and actively fight it. Others might wait until their position becomes more secure (e.g. getting a PhD title, a teacher’s position etc.) and then claim the rights for their works.
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Besides, sometimes, an objective look from the outside might help. It might happen that the student is angry with his teacher who does not allow publishing the articles on some intermediary results of the work but propels a student to perform a grand research and then present it to the scientific society. You have formed some idea during the lunch and shared it with a friend who afterwards implemented it into life and performed a brilliant project? You might soothe yourself that your own projects would not let you distract onto the other ones, but the world will become a bit better now. Besides, it is always pleasant to be indicated in the “Gratitude” section.
Some editions try to avoid the authorship issue completely. There the authors are not divided onto “first” and “second”, they are listed in the alphabetical order. Certainly, such arrangement somehow decreases the input of the main author; however, it demonstrates a main principle of the science – knowledge first.
Writing a scientific work foresees the engagement of the scientist’s creative and research potential. However, when the work is finished, it is highly important to execute it correctly and cope with all the stages that lead to the publishing of the work. In order to have a sufficient sample, get to our website and find the brilliant editing examples for writing online. Execute your paper in a grammatical way, adjust it to the requirements of the journal, to the reviewer’s remarks, have your name written correctly as a first author’s – this simple list takes huge effort and time to implement. Yet, in the end, you have your work published and seen by the scientific community. Hope your quoting rating will be increasing constantly!
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